The book is a classic of childlike gullibility by a scientist incapable of devising adequate controls for testing paranormal powers.
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Beware Familiar Spirits. Scribner's Sons. Carrington , Podmore , and Mrs. Handbook of parapsychology. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Society for Psychical Research. Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 21 August Literature, Technology and Magical Thinking, — Cambridge University Press.
Overlook Press. In many instances several years had elapsed between the occurrence and a report of it being made to the investigators from the SPR. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. She showed clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed in them were deceived. They used a number of tricks facilitated by darkness: sleight of hand was used to manipulate objects and touch people eager to make contact with deceased loved ones; flour or white lines would give the illusion of spectral white hands or faces; accomplices were even stashed under tables or in secret rooms to lent support in the plot As the investigations of the SPR, and other skeptics, were made public, many fraudulent mediums saw their careers ruined and many unsuspecting clients were enraged at the deception perpetrated.
The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. Paragon House Publishers. The Deceivers: Lives of the Great Imposters. Roy Publishers. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. Rhine Extra-Sensory Perception. Branden Publishing Company Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. Discovery: the Popular Journal of Knowledge. A Repetition of Dr. Rhine's work with Mrs. Eileen Garrett. Also quoted in Antony Flew. Journal of Experimental Psychology.
Journal of Parapsychology. Crumbaugh, J. An experimental study of extra-sensory perception. Masters thesis. Southern Methodist University. Heinlein, C. P; Heinlein, J. Willoughby, R.
Further card-guessing experiments. Journal of Psychology Pergamon Press. ESP, House of Cards. The American Scholar 8: American Journal of Sociology. We find that many of his experiments were set up in a manner which would tend to increase, instead of to diminish, the possibility of systematic clerical errors; and lastly, that the ESP cards can be read from the back.
Wynn, Arthur W. He was right! It is now known that the experiments conducted in his laboratory contained serious methodological flaws.
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Tests often took place with minimal or no screening between the subject and the person administering the test. Subjects could see the backs of cards that were later discovered to be so cheaply printed that a faint outline of the symbol could be seen. In addition, an observant subject could identify the cards by certain irregularities like warped edges, spots on the backs, or design imperfections.
Equally damaging has been the fact that the results have not replicated when the experiments have been conducted in other laboratories. Stimulus leakage or cheating could account for all his findings.
Slight indentations on the backs of cards revealed the symbols embossed on card faces. Subjects could see and hear the experimenter, and note subtle but revealing facial expressions or changes in breathing.
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Oxford University Press. In Pratt, J. Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years. Boston, US: Humphries. Second, there were five different symbols in the target series, but the experimental record showed that two of these arose more frequently than the other three. Rhine Research Center. The Parapsychological Association.
Parapsychological Association. Thomson Gale. New York Review of Books published May 17, An Introduction to Parapsychology, Fourth Edition. Also, it raises some doubts about some well-publicized cases of dramatic hits, which, if taken at face value, could not easily be attributed to background cues.
In at least some of these cases, there is a reason to suspect, based on both subsequent investigations and the viewers' statement that reports had been "changed" by previous program managers, that substantially more background information was available than one might at first assume. Parapsychology: A Concise History.
St Martin's Press. The Prague Post. Retrieved 16 December Irwin and Caroline Watt.