However, some interesting In the Tuxtla Statuette was discovered by a farmer ploughing his field Tuxtla Statuette discoveries have been made over the last years, which challenge this hypothesis. This is the area where the 17 colossal Olmec heads were quarried. Because of the unusual script on the artefact, it was sold on the black market and smuggled to New York hidden in a box of tobacco leaf. The six-inch nephrite piece was later acquired by the Smithsonian Institution and can still be seen at Dumbarton Oaks in Washington DC as part of the greater Smithsonian collection.
This remarkable find is a bullet-shaped humanoid with a strange duck-bill, that looks remarkably like the boat-billed heron. Another fascinating discovery was made at La Majorra in , when it was pulled from the Acula River. The four-and-a-half-feet-wide 1. On the edge of Stela 1 some badly weathered symbols were investigated by John S. Justeson and Terrence Kaufman by night-time examination with artificial lighting.
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The slab has a Mayan-looking ruler with full regalia and headgear, and above his head there are two Long Count dates that correspond to 21 May CE and 13 July CE. At Abaj Takalik, in southern Guatemala, on Stela 5 the date reads 8. Stela 2 at the same site has a date that is thought to be between BCE and 18 BCE, although because it is so faded, it is impossible to pinpoint the precise date.
Henderson, The World of the Ancient Maya. At El Baul, slightly further east in southern Guatemala, Stela 1 gives a date of 7. Although these carvings were not in the Epi-Olmec style, but rather the Izapan style, both these sites have strong Olmec influences in their stonework and style. In another important discovery was made back in the Gulf Coast region. Archaeologist, Matthew Stirling, had only just unleashed his team on the Gulf Coast a year earlier, under the supervision of the Smithsonian Institution, when at Tres Zapotes he discovered the bottom half of what became known as Stela C.
The date on it clearly showed 7. This was validated in when the top half of the stela was found. The glyph at the bottom of the left column specifies that this day was 6 Etz'nab in the Ritual Almanac; the jaguar head in the Introducing Glyph represents the patron deity of the Solar Year calendar month in which the date falls, although the precise position in the Solar Year system Haab is not specified.
Henderson, ibid. Tres Zapotes was topped by a discovery at Chiapa de Corzo, the indigenous capital of Chiapas.
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Although the site is now mostly destroyed by development, a small part of it is open to the public. An inscribed wall panel shows the date 7. However, the only full glyphs are kins, uinals and tuns. Without this piece of the inscription, the dates could be much older. I contacted a Maya calendar researcher who wishes to remain nameless to see if he could come up with some alternative dates if the missing piece had these two different numbers on it.
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He came back with these tantalising calculations: 1 8. So, until this final inscription is discovered, it is impossible to say which one of these it would have been. Several other strange calendar-looking glyphs have been discovered in the Olmec area. At La Venta, for instance, Monument 13 shows a turban-wearing, curledshoed, Phoenician-looking man standing with a scythe or flag, but below him are three undeciphered glyphs.
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A further interesting discovery was made four years later, in Veracruz once again, although no calendar dates were deciphered from it. It is made from serpentine, a highly valued stone that was also used in the level mosaic-floor pit at La Venta. Dated to around BCE and with the same headline as the discovery, this 36 cm x 21 cm x 13 cm block is certainly the oldest known writing in the Americas. The Cascajal Block was originally discovered by road builders in the late s in a pile of debris in the village of Lomas de Tacamichapa in the Veracruz lowlands. The style is not Epi-Olmec, or any other known language, so it has left researchers baffled.
This site has a remarkable, circular, step pyramid that archaeocryptographer, Carl Munck, worked out was a geodetic marker on a grid of ancient sites across the planet. The site is covered in an ancient lava flow that was first excavated by Mexican archaeologist, Manuel Gamio, in The dating of this lava made the site famous. Although the site is now dated to around BCE, the lava flow that covers much of the pyramid was originally dated to — BCE.
Back in National Geographic were the first to report on this incredibly ancient date. The author of the piece was archaeologist, Byron Cummings, who became fascinated by the site because geologist, George E. Hyde, had estimated the age of the flow to be at least 7, years old, suggesting that the pyramid must have been even older than that. In the on-site museum some unusual artefacts, including what looked like figurines with oriental eyes and some with big sunglasses on, had an eerily Olmec look about them.
A strange blue light even appeared above the pyramid when they began to excavate it in Apparently, the workers were delighted, thinking it must contain ancient Aztec treasure. None was found, but a geological map of the area may explain the blue lights that were first witnessed Cuilcuilco, circular step pyramid during the excavation, due to it being on a fault line that aligned with other volcanoes in the region.
Carbon dating of sediment on the paths around the pyramid gave a more conservative date of around BCE, but the mysterious calendrical earspool, dated to BCE, and the Olmec figurines may still retain a certain level of antiquity and place it firmly in the realm of the Olmec. Some other unusually early dates have been noted in carbon dating, which originally took place at the Olmec capital, San Lorenzo, in Olmec writing has also been found at Kaminaljuyu in Guatemala, a site that is dated to BCE, only years after the enigmatic BCE calendar start date.
La Venta is one of the most important sites in Central America. As well as containing the oldest known pyramid in the New World, it was also used to study the stars over great expanses of time to a startling degree of accuracy, suggesting a potential Long Count calendar connection.
John Major Jenkins points out: Archaeo-astronomical investigation has shown that the pyramid at La Venta was intentionally aligned toward the polar area of the sky and to specific stars in the Big Dipper. The level of precision in these alignments is quite impressive. The ir solution, however, was bound to be temporary, for precession would once again cause a misalignment between the stars and the pyramid. Nevertheless, the realignments of La Venta's pyramid provide evidence that Olmec astronomers were aware of precession John Major Jenkins, Maya Cosmogenesis 20 But how would they be able to track precession, a 26,year cycle?
John Major Jenkins found a very simple solution: Precession causes the rising time of a prominent star such as Spica to shift about one degree in seventy-two years. One degree is twice the width of the moon.
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John Major Jenkins believes that precession was directly linked with the Long Count, as this extremely rare alignment only occurs every 25, years So, Jenkins argues, they would notice it within one lifetime and could pass it down generation to generation. At La Venta its precise orientation to the circumpolar stars would have made it easy to track the changes in the rising of stars on the horizon: The pyramid realignments at La Venta make sense only if we allow that the Olmec were keenly interested in calibrating precession.
Jenkins believes that precession was directly linked with the Long Count, as this extremely rare alignment only occurs every 25, years. Every 6, years the earth also lines up with the galactic centre, and with the seasonal quarters equinoxes and the summer and winter solstices. Five baktun cycles 5 x 5 12 5. Brodart cover. First UK printing, no later printings mentioned. Seller Inventory HCX More information about this seller Contact this seller 5.
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